Bulgaria

Tell Yunatsite Excavations – Seeking Europe's First Civilization

Period: Final Neolithic/ Chalcolithic (Copper Age): 4900-4100 BCE, Early Bronze Age: 3100-2200 BCE
Code: YU.EXC 22
Session 1: 09 July - 23 July, 2022 (closed)
Session 2: 23 July - 6 August, 2022 (open)
Session 3: 09 July - 6 August, 2022 (closed)
Academic credits available: up to 9
Cost starting from: 1549 EUR/ approx. 1774 USD

The Project and the Course


General Information

Project type: Field school & archaeological excavation. Suitable for both beginner and advanced students as well as those interested in archaeology and history of the eastern Mediterranean and Europe during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods.   

The excavation started: 1939; The field school started: 2013

Site: Prehistoric tell next to the village of Yunatsite, Southern Bulgaria.   

Periods in the project's focus: Final Neolithic / Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age, Iron Age, Antiquity and Middle Ages.

Project venue: the district town of Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.

Major field school topics/activities: Archaeology of Neolithic and Chalcolithic Europe;  Excavations of the Final Neolithic/ Chalcolithic (4900 – 4100 BCE) strata of Tell Yunatsite; Prehistoric warfare and ceramics; Archaeological field techniques and methods for excavation and documentation, processing of finds and samples; Excursions to significant heritage sites in Bulgaria.

BHF partners in this project:    

Dig co-directors: Associate Prof. Yavor Boyadzhiev (PhD in Archaeology), National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Asst. Prof. Kamen Boyadzhiev (PhD in Archaeology), National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences   

Field school sessions available:

  • Session 1: 09 July - 23 July 2022 (closed)
  • Session 2: 23 July - 6 August 2022 (open)
  • Session 3: 09 July - 6 August 2022 (closed)

Minimum length of stay: Two weeks   

Application deadline: Until the places are filled or 15 June 2022

Minimum age: 18 (16, if the participant is accompanied by an adult family member)

Number of field school places available: Maximum 12

Project language: English

Academic credits available: Up to 9 ECTS credits are available through the New Bulgarian University, Bulgaria. 

Experience required: No previous experience is required for applicants for Session 1 and/or 3. However, applicants for Session 2 are expected to have at least two weeks of archaeological field experience prior to their participation in this session.

Special requirements:    

  • A medical COVID-19 certificate will be requested from each participant. The participants should have medical insurance including COVID-19 treatment and repatriation. The participants should inform the project staff about any health issues, allergies, and food preferences.    
  • Participation in the project is not recommended for individuals with solar allergies or other special illnesses that might be exacerbated during the intensive outdoor activities. The average summer temperatures in the area are 25-35° C (77-95° F). Participants should bring clothes and toiletries suitable for hot and sunny weather but should also prepare for possible rainy, windy and chilly days.    
  • Participants are also expected to prepare for the dig by reading at minimum the BHFS handbook that will be sent by e-mail before the beginning of the project.    
  • Participants will use the tools and equipment available at the site and are not expected to bring any additional equipment.     

   

COVID-19 Safety measures: All participants should read our updated Terms & Conditions regarding BHF's COVID-19 Safety policy..

   

WATCH STUDENT TESTIMONIALS!

The Site and the Excavation Project

During the 7th and 6th millennia BCE, the Balkan Peninsula was a gateway through which farming, animal husbandry and Neolithization spread from Anatolia and the Near East to Europe. This new population gradually settled down and got familiar with the surrounding region, suitable agricultural areas, raw sources and so on. In the 6th millennium BCE their economy, social organization, trade and cultural contacts evolved, to reach their peak in the 5th millennium BCE. In the beginning of the 5th millennium the earliest metallurgy in European and global prehistory (the processing of copper and soon after, gold) appeared in the Balkans. Thus, this period is known as Copper age, Chalcolithic, Eneolithic or Final Neolithic.

The continuative inhabitance of the same suitable places during these millennia led to the formation of a settlement phenomenon, characteristic of the Near Eastern and Balkan prehistory – the multilayered tell-sites.

Tell Yunatsite is located near the modern village of Yunatsite in Southern Bulgaria. It is among the biggest tells in Europe with a diameter of approximately 110 m/360 ft and height of 12 m/39 ft above the modern surface. Tell Yunatsite was first excavated in 1939 by the Bulgarian archaeologist Vasil Mikov. In 1976, regular excavations were restarted and have continued on an annual basis. Subsequently, research at Tell Yunatsite has grown into an important research program under the National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. At times, Greek and Soviet archaeologists have joined the research at the site and today this is an international research effort directed by Bulgarian scholars. The field school will be held for seventh year and is a joint cooperation between Balkan Heritage Foundation (BHF), the Regional Museum of History in Pazardzhik, the Tell Yunatsite Excavation Team from the National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for Field Research.   

To date, approximately one third of the tell has been excavated. This work yielded rich collections of archaeological materials, and the sterile soil has not yet been reached. There is a medieval cemetery at the top of the tell, followed by a Roman period level, two Iron Age levels, another dated to the Early Bronze Age, and finally a Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic level. It is unknown if the cultural history of the tell begins in the Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic period or whether older Neolithic occupation layers exist.

The archaeological field school takes place at the Tell Yunatsite lowest excavated layer, which corresponds to the time of Europe’s first prehistoric civilization in the 5th millennium BCE. The intense study of these very first complex societies in Europe began 40 years ago with the excavation of the Varna Copper Age necropolis. That excavation was the first to demonstrate the rise of social complexity in the region. It is during this time that metal processing became widespread and it is the earliest dates for such transformative technological innovation. Data suggest that it is the world’s earliest mass production of both copper and gold (the world’s oldest gold treasure was found in the Varna Copper age necropolis), the first urban settlements in Europe, distinct social and political stratification, and pictograms and characters interpreted by some scholars as the world's oldest script (as on the Gradeshnitsa tablet, for instance). The area of this civilization stretches from Anatolia across the Balkans to the Carpathian basin and the steppes of Eastern Europe. It collapsed around the end of the 5th millennium BCE under the pressure of drastic social and demographic changes, which were presumably caused mainly by climate change but were exacerbated by foreign invasions.

Recent excavations at Tell Yunatsite indicate that the Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic period settlement covered an area far larger than the tell itself and consisted of uptown (acropolis?) and a downtown district. The uptown section was surrounded by a five meter wide clay wall and a broad and deep ditch. Buildings in this part were placed closed to each other, creating an almost unbroken urban fabric. The Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic settlement experienced a violent event at ca. 4,200-4,100 BCE. Evidence suggests deliberate destruction by outsiders. Many skeletons of children, elderly men, and women were found scattered on floors, suggesting a massive massacre. Those who survived returned and resettled at the Tell, but soon even they left. At that point, Tell Yunatsite and the area around it were abandoned for more than 1,000 years. During this time, a sterile layer accumulated over the last Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic layer.

Excavations in the last years shed new light on the stratigraphy and development of the Chalcolithic/Final Neolithic, and brought new interesting discoveries. Among them are a golden bead and a golden amulet, which are among the earliest golden artifacts in the world. 


The Field School

The aim of the project is to provide participants with a theoretical background on the development of Neolithic cultures in Southeastern Europe with a focus on Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic, Europe’s first civilization, and with practical experience in excavating a complex prehistoric tell-site.   

This field school provides a unique glimpse into the rise and fall of arguably the earliest European civilization. In 2022, field school students will take part in further excavation of the burned Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic layer buildings. Faculty and students will work together and explore why and how did one of the earliest proto urban centers in Europe emerge in the beginning of the 5th millennium BCE, and what are the reasons that caused its collapse 800 years later.    

There are three field school sessions (two consecutive two-week sessions and one four-week session) available. Each of them covers the following three modules:    

  • Fieldwork including excavation of the Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic layers and structures, which includes practicing basic excavation techniques as well as screening, sifting and flotation; the development of archaeological field documentation by maintaining a field journal on a daily basis, filling context sheets and labels, drawing an elevation plan/ a ground plan/ a cross-section, 3D positioning of finds, taking coordinates with a dumpy level, as well as taking photographs at the site;    
  • Lectures, workshops and field training in prehistoric (with emphasize on Neolithic, Chacolithic, prehistoric warfare and ceramics), and field archaeology, finds processing and documentation and 3)    
  • Excursions to the Pazardzhik Regional Museum of History; the ancient town of Plovdiv including the Archaeological Museum, Old Town Quarter and major Roman monuments; and Stara Zagora including the Regional Museum of History, Roman monuments and the Museum of Europe's best-preserved Neolithic (5600 BCE) dwellings.   

Session 1 is an excellent opportunity for beginners. Session 2 is ideal for participants with some (at least two weeks) field experience to develop more skills and competences regarding the field work as well as finds and samples processing; and to attend workshops on 3D intra-site modelling and documentation/GIS spatial analysis in archaeology. Each two-week session includes 10 working days, 1 day for orientation and introduction; 1 day for the excursion; and 1 day-off plus arrival & departure days. Session 3 is a well designed combination of Session 1 and Session 2 with 20 working days, 2 excursion days; 4 days-off (one of them with an optional excursion) plus arrival & departure day.

Students who are required to prepare field reports and presentations for their universities can receive additional instruction and assistance.

All participants will receive:

  • Project handbook (in PDF version by e-mail)
  • Balkan Heritage Field School Certificate specifying the fieldwork hours, educational modules, and sites visited
  • T-shirt.


The Program

The two-week Sessions 1 and 2 provide a minimum of 90 hours and the four-week Session 3 provides a minimum of 180 hours of fieldwork, workshops/lab work, lectures/instructions and guided tours as follows:

SESSIONS 1, 2 and 3:   

Lectures/ Instructions

  • Rise and Fall of Europe's Earliest Civilization in the Fifth Millennium BCE
  • Tell Yunatsite: Environment, History and Excavations
  • Basic Field Methods and Practices for Excavation and Documentation at Tell Yunatsite
  • Hygiene, Health, and Safety at the Site

Field Work

  • Use of Excavation Tools
  • Practice of Basic Working Techniques
  • Identification of Archaeological Contexts
  • Creation of Field Documentation - Field Journal, Context Sheets and Labels, Ground Plans and Cross-sections, Photographs, etc.
  • Identification and Sorting of Archaeological Finds

Workshops

  • How to Use a Dumpy Level
  • How to Draw a Ground-plan/elevation-plan/cross-section (Using Scale)
  • Photography for Archaeologists
  • Finds Processing and Flotation of Soil Samples

   

SESSIONS 1 and 3:   

Lectures/ Instructions

  • Emergence of Early Farming in the Near East and Europe: Causes and Consequence   
  • Warfare in Prehistory   
  • From the Field to Storage: Review of Basic Methods for Uncovering, "First Aid", Consolidation in Situ, Cleaning, Sorting, Labeling, Documenting and Storing Ceramic Artifacts   
  • Understanding Pottery - part 1 and 2   
  • Introduction to the Field Journal; Contextual Sheets, Log Book and Other Record Forms
  • Three Dimensional Positioning of Finds, Features and Structures
  • Stratigraphy: Horizontal and Vertical

  • Field Graphic and Photographic Documentation
  • Excavations Preparation. Preliminary Indoor Research
  • Excavation Completion. Post Excavation Work and Analyses   

   

Guided Tours

  • Tour of the Pazardzhik Regional Museum of History
  • Tour of the ancient town of Plovdiv (the Ancient City of Philippopolis) including the Archaeological Museum, Old Town Quarter and major Roman monuments 

   

SESSION 2 and 3:

Lectures/ Instructions   

  • An Introduction to GIS Spatial Analyses and Cartography

   

Workshops

  • Producing 3D Photogrammetric Models of Excavation Units

   

Guided Tours    

  • Tour of Stara Zagora (Ancient Augusta Traiana) including the Regional Museum of History, Roman monuments and the Museum of Europe's best-preserved Neolithic (5600 BCE) dwellings

      

       

  • Lectures will take place at Hotel Primavera and at the site
  • Workshops will take place at the site
  • Field instructions and training will take place at the site

The Agenda

 

First Day

Arrival dates for Sessions 1 and 3: 09 July 2022; for Session 2: 23 July 2022

Arrive by noon at Sofia Airport, Bulgaria, conduct a COVID-19 PCR*  test on arrival at the airport and get self-quarantined for the period before the pick up, at the Best Western Premier Sofia Airport Hotel** (these rules may be changed. The BHFS will provide ongoing updates on COVID-19 rules and restrictions in Bulgaria to all enrolled students).

 *The reimbursement payment DOES NOT cover the shuttle cost (35 EUR), the first night accommodation and PCR test costs!

**Please do not make any reservations before the confirmation of the field school and the latest updates about the COVID-19 situation, which will be sent to you via email one month before the beginning of the field school!

Second Day

10.30 am - All students with negative PCR test results will be picked up from the hotel

11.45 am - Arrival and check-in at Hotel Primavera, in Pazardzhik district, Bulgaria

12.30 pm - Lunch

2.00 - 7.30 pm - Introduction, Orientation and Lectures

8.00 pm - 9.30 pm - Traditional Bulgarian welcome dinner

Work days

6.15 - 6.30 am - Travel to the site

6.30 am - 8.30 am - Fieldwork*

8.30 - 9.00 am - Breakfast at the site

9.00 - 11.00 am - Fieldwork*

11.00 - 11.15 am - Break

11.15 am - 1.00 pm - Fieldwork*

1.00 - 1.30 pm - Lunch

1.30 - 1.45 pm - Travel to the hotel

1.45 - 4.45 pm - Siesta break 

4.45 - 5.00 pm - Travel to the site

5.00 - 8.00 pm - Lectures/Workshops/Finds processing at the site   

8.00 - 8.45 pm - Dinner at the site

8.45 - 9.00 pm - Travel to the hotel

   

* In case of rain, the field school program provides substitute activities including finds processing workshops and film projections at the hotel.

Days off

17, 24, 31  (only for participants in the four-week Session 3) July, 2022

Excursion schedule

Dates TBA - Tour of the Pazardzhik Regional Museum of History, Bulgaria. The tour is covered by the reimbursement payment. 

16 July 2022: Plovdiv (the ancient city of Philippopolis) – European capital of Culture 2019. Guided tour of the Archaeological Museum, Roman monuments, and the Old Town Quarter. The excursion is covered by the reimbursement payment.  

30 July 2022: Stara Zagora (the ancient city of Augusta Traiana). Guided tour of the Regional Museum of History, Roman monuments, and the Museum of Europe's best-preserved Neolithic (5600 BCE) dwellings. The excursion is covered by the reimbursement payment.

 Participants who attend the Session 3 will be able to attend all the tours!

Last Day

Departure. Check-out by 12.00 pm   

Departure dates:

  • Session 1: 23 July 2022
  • Sessions 2 and 3: 6  August 2022

Transfers to the airports in Sofia and Plovdiv may be arranged for an additional fee upon request.


Reading Background   

 

REQUIRED READINGS

Anthony D. (ed.). The Lost World of Old Europe. The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500 BC. New York University and Princeton University Press, 2010.

Aslanis, I. Settlement Patterns in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age: the Case of the Prehistoric Settlement of Yunatsite, Bulgaria. – In: Neolithic and Copper Age between the Carpathians and the Aegean Sea. S. Hansen, P. Raczky, A. Anders, A. Reingruber (eds.). DAI, 2015, 395-402 (Archäologie in Eurasien, 31).

Balabina, V., T. Mishina. Considering the Destruction of the Latest Eneolithic Village at Tell Yunatsite – In: Boyadzhiev, Y., S. Terzijska-Ignatova (eds.) - The Golden Fifth Millennium. Thrace and Its Neighbour Areas in the Chalcolithic, Sofia 2011, 39-47.

Boyadziev, Y. Chronology of Prehistoric Cultures in Bulgaria. – In: Bailey D. and I. Panayotov (eds.). Prehistoric Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology № 22, Madison, Wisconsin 1995, 149-191.

Boyadziev Y. Chalcolithic Stone Architecture from Bulgaria - Archaeologia Bulgarica VIII, Sofia 2004, 1-12.

Boyadzhiev, Y. Tell Yunatsite: Development and Absolute Chronology of the Settlements from the Beginning of the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age. – In: Neolithic and Copper Age between the Carpathians and the Aegean Sea. S. Hansen, P. Raczky, A. Anders, A. Reingruber (eds.). DAI, 2015, 381-394 (Archäologie in Eurasien, 31).

Merpert N. J. The Problem of Transition from the North Balkan Aeneolithic to the Early Bronze Age in the Upper Thracian Valley – In: Europa Indo-Europea, Roma 1994, 41-50.

Todorova N., Mazanova V. Late Chalcolithic Ceramic Style at Yunatsite Tell (Approach to the Systematization of the Ceramics from the Newly Excavated Levels) – In: Nikolova L. (ed.) - Technology, Style and Society. BAR International Series 854, Oxford 2000, 331-361.

Zäuner, S. The Dark Side of the Chalcolithic. Evidence for Warfare at Tell Yunatsite? An Anthropological Approach – Boyadzhiev, Y., S. Terzijska-Ignatova (eds.) - The Golden Fifth Millennium. Thrace and Its Neighbor Areas in the Chalcolithic, Sofia 2011, 49-56.

   

RECOMMENDED READINGS

Boyadzhiev K. Development and Distribution of Close Combat Weapons in Bulgarian Chalcolithic - Studia Praehistorica 14, Sofia 2011, 265 – 281.

Boyadzhiev Y. Ethnocultural Interrelationships in the Lower Danube Area during the Second Half of the Sixth and the First Half of the Fifth Millennium BC (According to Evidence from Cemeteries) - Studia Praehistorica 14, Sofia 2011, 205 – 223.

Grant J., Sam Gorin and Neil Fleming. The Archaeology Coursebook: an Introduction to Themes, Sites, Methods and Skills. Routledge, 2008.

McIntosh, J. Handbook to Life in Prehistoric Europe. New York, 2006.

Merpert N. J. Bulgaro-Russian Archeological Investigations in the Balkans. Ancient Civilisations from Scythia to Siberia – In: International Journal of Comparative Studies in History and Archeology, Vol. 2, N 3, Leiden 1995, 364-383.

Todorova N. The Ornamentation of Late Chalcolithic Pottery from Yunatsite Tell, Pazardzhik District - – In: Nikolova L. (ed.) Early Symbolic Systems for Communication in Southeast Europe.BAR International Series 1139, Oxford 2003, 291-311.

   

Travel & Accommodation & Practicalities


Travel

   

Project venue: Hotel Primavera in the district town of Pazardzhik (45000 inhabitants). The town is located in Thrace, Southern Bulgaria, 100 km/ 62 mi away from the Bulgarian capital Sofia. The distance from the town to the site is approx. 10 km/5.5 mi,  approx. 15-20 min drive. A daily BHFS shuttle/car service is arranged for the participants to bring them to the site and back to the hotel. 

The recommended air terminal: Sofia (Bulgaria, 100 km/ 62 mi away)

How to get there: All participants will be transported by bus/shuttle from Sofia to the project hotel in Pazardzhik for an additional fee of 35 EUR. 

Visa requirements: Citizens of EU, EEA, USA, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia and New Zealand do not need a visa to visit Bulgaria for up to 90 days. Citizens of all other countries may need a visa.The Balkan Heritage Foundation can send an official invitation letter that should be used at the relevant embassy to secure a visa to the program. For further details please visit our Visa information page.

   


Accommodation & Meals

   

Accommodation*: In comfortable rooms with two to three beds (bathrooms with shower and WC, TV, a/c and free Wi-Fi) at the Hotel Primavera. The hotel is located in the central pedestrian and shopping area of Pazardzhik, very close to everything that the town can offer to tourists (shops, pharmacies, banks, markets, taverns, restaurants, bars, hospitals, cafes, post offices, tourist attractions, parks etc.). There is cheap laundry service available at the archaeological site. Participants are not expected to bring any additional equipment, bed linens or towels. Single rooms are available upon request for the supplement of 150 EUR per week. Staying an extra day at the hotel costs 40 EUR (per night per person).

*Subject to change. May be substituted with similar level accommodation.

Meals: Three meals (organic Bulgarian homemade food) per day are covered by the reimbursement payment. During the workdays, all meals usually take place at the site. The meals during the weekends (except the brown-bag lunches during the excursions) take place at the hotel’s restaurant. This field school can accommodate vegetarians, vegans, and individuals with lactose intolerance. Kosher and gluten-free diets are impossible to accommodate in this location.

Participants must pay on their own for extra days and for single room accommodation as well as for extra meals, beverages, services and products.   

   


Free Time & Trips

   

Free time: Possible leisure activities during the siesta and days off in and around Pazardzhik are: swimming in the public swimming pools, hiking in the Rhodopi Mountains, wine-tasting, visiting local tourist sites, traveling by the narrow gauge train to Velingrad (popular spa and wellness town) or shopping and sightseeing in the neighboring city of Plovdiv.

  


Technicalities & Practicalities   

   

Insurance: The reimbursement payment does not cover insurance. It is mandatory to arrange your own health insurance before your trip to Bulgaria. The insurance must cover as a minimum the following risks: medical treatment in case of an accident or disease, specifically covering COVID-19 as well as costs related to evacuation and repatriation. All EU citizens can use Bulgarian medical services, as long as they can provide evidence of their home-country health insurance with a card/certificate, etc.

Vaccination: Vaccination against COVID-19 (according to the policy of the country) is mandatory.

Weather: South-European (Transitional Mediterranean to Continental) climate with hot summers (30-40° C, 86-104° F) dominates in the region. Rainy and chillier days in this season are not unheard of.

   

What to bring?

  • A pair of working shoes (sneakers, running shoes) and a pair of comfortable shoes for walking/hiking;   
  • Clothing suitable for an outdoor working environment: sun-hat and light clothes with long sleeves and legs (protecting from the sun and insects), including a light raincoat (consider weather conditions - hot and sunny, but rain may fall as well);     
  • Wide brim hat;   
  • Small backpack (for your water bottle, snacks, camera, etc.)  
  • Medication - only prescription medicines you may need since you can buy all basic non-prescription drugs in Bulgaria.     
  • A converter to EU type electricity wall-plug if needed.
  • A good attitude for work, fun, study and discoveries ;)   

Excavation & documentation tools and materials, as well as working gloves are available at the site!

   

The Cost  

      

All field schools are conducted as non-profit projects by the Balkan Heritage Foundation, Bulgaria. Their costs, including students' costs related to participation in the field school are covered by the reimbursement payments made by field school students.

BHFS project reimbursement payment covers: Educational and fieldwork activities, full-board accommodation (hotel + 3 meals per day), tools, materials, project handbook or readings, issue of Certificate of Attendance, administrative costs, travel related to the fieldwork and the excursions included in the field school program plus relevant entrance fees.

BHFS project reimbursement payment does not include: travel costs to and from the project venue or related to activities not included in the field school program; medical products and services and any expenses related to medical quarantine (food delivery, accommodation, etc.).

  

The costs in USD are approximate. Please check current exchange rates!

   

Early Bird Cost - until March 31, 2022:

   

Early Bird Cost for two-week project session is 1549 EUR/ approx.1774 USD

Early Bird Cost for four-week project session is 2699 EUR/ approx. 3091 USD

   

Regular Cost - after March 31, 2022:      

   

The Regular Cost for two-week project session is 1699 EUR / approx. 1946 USD

The Regular Cost for four-week project session is 2899 EUR/ approx. 3320 USD   

   

All students registered for BHFS season 2020 shall contact BHFS Admissions office at b[email protected] for further information about the conditions of their participation in season 2022. 


Reimbursement Transfer Options:

- Bank transfer
- Online transfers via the Balkan Heritage virtual POS Terminal. VISA, MASTERCARD & MAESTRO cards are accepted.      
Wise money transfer

For further information contact Admissions Office at: [email protected]!

   

Academic Credits   

      

New Bulgarian University grants 6 ECTS credits to students for attending any of two-week sessions (1 and 2) and 9 ECTS credits for attending the four-week session (3). Transcripts of Records (ToR) are available upon request for an additional tuition fee. For details: Regulations for Obtaining Transcripts of Records.

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Tell Yunatsite Excavations – Seeking Europe's First Civilization


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