Official name: Republic of Slovenia
Location: Slovenia is bordered by Austria to the north and Hungary to the far northeast. To the east, southeast, and south, Slovenia shares a 416-mile- (670-km-) long border with Croatia. To the southwest Slovenia is adjacent to the Italian port city of Trieste and occupies a portion of the Istrian Peninsula, where it has an important coastline along the Gulf of Venice. Italy’s Friuli-Venezia Giulia region is situated to the west.
Area: 20,271 km2
Ethnic composition: 83.1% Slovenes, 2.0% Serbs, 1.8% Croats, 1.6% Bosniaks, 0.4% Romani, 0.3% Hungarians, 0.1% Italians 2.2% Others and 8.9% Unspecified
State government: Slovenia is a Parliamentary Republic
President: Borut Pahor
Official Language: Slovenian
Religions: 77.8% Christianity (73.4% Catholicism, 3.7% Orthodoxy and 0.7% Other Christian), 18.3% No religion and 3.9% Others
Time difference: UTC +2 CEST (Central European Summer Time)
Weather: Summer temperatures: average 25º to 30ºC, Winter temperatures: average -3º to 6ºC
Country dialing code: +386
Measure units: degree Celsius (ºC), meter (m.), gram (gr.), liter (l.)
By about 3,500 BC stone age farmers lived in what is now Slovenia. The bronze age followed then about 750 BC the iron age began. Then about 400 BC, the Celts settled Slovenia. They formed the state of Noricum.
However, in 10 BC the Romans conquered Slovenia. Under Roman rule, Slovenia prospered and towns were founded like Emona (Ljubljana), Celeia (Celje), and Poetovio (Ptuj). However Roman rule collapsed in the 5th century AD.
In the 6th century AD, the Slavs arrived in Slovenia. However in the 8th century, they came under the domination of the Franks of central Europe, and in the 9th century, Slovenia was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire, which was centered on Germany. Meanwhile, missionaries converted Slovenia to Christianity. In the 10th to 13th centuries Slovenia remained under German domination.
However, in the early 12th century towns were founded in Slovenia, and trade and commerce flourished. Yet in the 14th century, the Habsburg dynasty came to control Slovenia. The Habsburgs gained Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and they gained Istria in 1374 and Trieste in 1382.
In the late 15th and 16th centuries, peasants in Slovenia often rebelled. However, all the rebellions failed.
Meanwhile, the Turks threatened Slovenia. However, they were crushed at the battle of Sisak in 1593.
The Reformation also rocked Slovenia. In the early 16th century Protestantism made some headway but by the century’s end, the Catholic Counter-Reformation reconverted Slovenia.
The 18th century was a prosperous time for Slovenia and her industries flourished. In the late 18th century religious freedom was allowed and primary education was made compulsory.
In the 18th century, Slovenia was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. However, Napoleon wanted to cut Austria-Hungary off from the sea. So in 1809, he carved out an area he called the Illyrian Provinces. The Slovenian language was used in schools and in government. However, in 1814 with the defeat of Napoleon Slovenia was absorbed back into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Yet in the early 19th-century Slovenian literature flourished. The leading figure was France Preseren (1800-1849).
In 1848 Europe was rocked by revolutions. Slovenians demanded an autonomous Slovenia and the use of the Slovenian language in schools and government. The emperor refused but during the late 19th century Slovenes formed political parties. However, they wanted autonomy rather than outright independence. Nevertheless, many Slovenes emigrated in the late 19th century.
Then in 1918 with the end of the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian Empire disintegrated. Slovenes joined with Serbs and Croats to form a new state led by Serbian King Peter I. A Serbian named Stojan Protic became the first prime minister. In 1929 the next king, Alexander made himself an absolute ruler and he renamed the kingdom Yugoslavia. However, he was assassinated in 1934 and his cousin Paul became regent.
In March 1941 the regent signed a treaty with Germany but he was overthrown in a coup. In response, the Germans bombed Belgrade on 6 April 1941 and invaded Yugoslavia. They conquered the country in a matter of days. During the Second World War, Slovene partisans fought the Germans.
However, from 1943, some anti-Communists called the Slovenian Domobranci supported the Germans in order to prevent the spread of Communism. However, they failed and in May 1945 Slovenia was completely liberated. The Domobranci retreated into Austria where the British disarmed them. However, the anti-Communists were then sent back to Yugoslavia – to their deaths. About 12,000 were killed by the partisans. Following the war, Trieste was placed under Anglo-American control and in 1954 it was awarded to Italy.
Meanwhile, Slovenia became part of a Communist Yugoslavia led by Tito. Industry developed and living standards rose. However many Slovenes resented the way resources were siphoned off from them and given to less prosperous parts of Yugoslavia.
Tito died in 1980 and in the late 1980s, Yugoslavia began to break up. In Slovenia, opposition parties were formed. In 1989 they published the May Declaration demanding independence and democracy. In April 1990 free elections were held in Slovenia then in December 1990 a referendum was held on the issue of independence. The people were overwhelmingly in favor so on 25 June 1991 the Slovene parliament declared Slovenia independent.
The Yugoslavian army then made a half-hearted attempt to invade Slovenia on 27 June 1991. However, they were held in check by the Slovenian Territorial Defense forces and the police. On 7 July the Yugoslavs agreed to a ceasefire brokered by the EU.
In December 1991 Slovenia gained a new constitution and on 15 January 1992 Slovenian independence was recognized by the EU. Like many eastern European countries, Slovenia faced a painful transition from Communism to Capitalism during the 1990s.
However, in 2004 Slovenia became a member of the EU. Also in 2004, Slovenia joined Nato. In 2007 Slovenia joined the Euro.
Slovenia, like the rest of Europe, was affected by the recession of 2009 but it soon recovered. Today its economy is growing steadily. Tourism is a flourishing industry in Slovenia. In 2020 the population of Slovenia was over 2 million.
Slovenian is a South Slavic language. It is spoken by about 2.5 million speakers worldwide, mainly Slovenes, the majority of whom live in Slovenia, where it is one of the three official languages. You can use the following dictionary of the most common and necessary words and phrases in Slovenian. However, it will also help you communicate with the local people (although most young Slovenians do speak English) and find, for example, your way to the bus station in Ljubljana.
A/a/, B /b/, C, /ts/, Č, /tʃ/, D /d/, E /e/, F /f/, G /ɡ/, H /x/, I /i/, J/j/, K /k/, L /l/, /w/, M /m/, N /n/, O /o/, P /p/, R /r/, S /s/, Š/sh/, T /t/, U /u/, V /v/, /w/, Z /z/, Ž /zh,ž/
Here are some of the MOST HELPFUL WORDS and phrases in Slovenian:
Žal mi je
|What time is it?||
Koliko je ura?
|Where I can find an exchange office?||
Kje lahko najdem menjalnico?
|How much is it?|
|Ticket for ...|
Vozovnica za ...
|I don’t understand|
|I’m getting off at bus station|
Izstopam na avtobusni postaji
|Where is the bus to ?|
Kam je avtobus namenjen?
Slovenia has a continental climate with warm summers and cold winters (snowfalls in the Alps). There is a Mediterranean climate on the coast, with the average temperature at 0°C (32ºF) in January and 20°C (79ºF) in July. Summer is typically warm, with consistent sunshine; whereas the winters are cool and fresh.
Soups are a relatively recent invention in Slovenian cuisine, but there are over 100. Earlier there were various kinds of porridge, stew and one-pot meals. The most common soups without meat were lean and plain. A typical dish is aleluja, a soup made from turnip peels and a well-known dish during fasting. The most common meat soup is beef soup with noodles, which is often served on Sunday as part of a Sunday lunch (beef soup, fried potatoes, fried steak and lettuce). On feast days and holidays there is often a choice of beef noodle soup or creamy mushroom soup. Pork is popular and common everywhere in Slovenia. Poultry is also often popular. There is a wide variety of meats in different parts of Slovenia. In White Carniola and the Slovenian Littoral mutton and goat are eaten. Jota (sauerkraut pork and bean stew) and žlikrofi (traditional dumplings from Idrija) are also typical dishes and most common dessert is slovenian potica (a nut roll - traditional festive pastry).
For beer lovers, Union and Laško have a monopoly on the lager market and are actually owned by the same brewery (which has in turn been owned by Heineken as of September 2015), but lovers of craft beers won’t be disappointed. Human Fish, the first craft brewery in the country, Pelicon,Bevog, and more are here for you. Too many beers can often lead you down the schnapps road, and the harder stuff is ubiquitous as well.The most popular choices are slivovka (plum), borovničke (blueberry), medica (honey) and viljamovka (pear). If you're more partial to an herbal Jagermeister-esque taste, give pelinkovac a go. Slovenia is a nation of wine drinkers at heart however, and you can't go wrong with almost anything.
You can travel to Slovenia by air to the three international airports or any of the airports in the neighbouring countries.
Airports in Slovenia:
Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport
Address: Zgornji Brnik 130a, 4210 Brnik, Slovenia
Phone: +386 4 206 10 00
Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport
Address: 10, Letališka cesta, 2312 Orehova vas, Slovenia
Phone: +386 2 629 15 53
Address: Sečovlje 19, 6333 Sečovlje, Slovenia
Phone: +386 5 617 51 40
Airports in the neighboring countries:
Venice Treviso Airport (Italy)
Address: 31100 Treviso, Province of Treviso, Italy
Phone: +39 0422 315111
Franjo Tuđman Airport Zagreb (Croatia)
Address: Ul. Rudolfa Fizira 21, 10150, Zagreb, Croatia
Phone: +385 1 4562 170
Slovenia is in the Schengen Area, which means that, in general, there are no checks at the border crossings with Italy, Austria and Hungary. To enter Slovenia from Croatia, it is sufficient to have a passport or an identity document, if the visit does not last more than three months.
Restrictions on Tobacco Products and Alcohol
EU citizens can bring in Slovenia a maximum of 800 cigarettes or 200 cigars, or 1 kilogram of smoking tobacco. You can carry a maximum of 10 litres of spirits or drinks with an alcoholic content over 22 percent, or 20 litres of alcoholic beverages with less than 22 percent of alcohol.
Citizens of other countries, who are more than 17 years old, can bring in Slovenia a maximum of 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars, or 250 grams of smoking tobacco. You can carry a maximum of 1 litre of spirits or drinks with an alcoholic content over 22 percent, or 2 litres of alcoholic beverages with up to 22 percent of alcohol.
Bringing in Cash
If you are a citizen of an EU Member State, there are no restrictions on bringing cash into Slovenia, but if you are a citizen of another country you may bring a maximum of 10,000 euros in cash. Larger amounts must be declared to customs officials.
The currency of Slovenia is the Euro (€) as its sole currency along with 24 other countries that use this common European money.
ATMs are easily accessible and major credit cards/travellers’ cheques are widely accepted.
Banks and bureaux de change will change travellers’ cheques, sterling and other main currencies.
Post offices - all over Slovenia offer international postal, telephone, telegraph, and fax services.
Phone calls - Phone cards can be bought at the post offices and you can use the paid phones in the post offices or hotels.
Internet - A wireless Internet connection is available in many public areas in big towns (cafes, restaurants, hotels, malls, etc.), and in most cases, you only need to ask for the security key.
In Slovenia, the standard voltage is 230 V and the standard frequency is 50 Hz. The power plugs and sockets are of type F (Two round pins). If your appliance's plug has a different shape, you may need a plug adapter.
Bank branches have very varied working hours, but the majority close for the lunch break. They are mostly open Monday to Friday, from around 8 AM to around noon and from around 2 PM to around 5 PM.
Public administration facilities are open Monday to Friday from 8 AM to noon and from 1 PM to 3 PM. On the other hand, private and international offices are open from 8 AM to 4 PM and, especially in bigger cities, from 9 AM to 5 PM.
Most shops are open Monday to Friday from 8 AM to 7 or 8 PM (sometimes even 9 PM) and on Saturdays from 8 AM to noon. Some large hypermarkets in major cities are open Monday to Saturday from 9 AM to 9 PM and on Sundays from 9 AM to 3 PM.
National emergency number is: 112
Road assistance: 080 26 56
Bottle (0,33 l) of mineral water(in a restaurant): 2€
Bottle (0,5 l) of mineral water (in a store): 0,5€
Coffee (in a café): 1,50€
Apple (organic): 2€/kg
Pizza (in a restaurant): 10€
Vegetable salad 250 gr (in a restaurant): 3,5€ as a side dish, as main: 7€
Fresh natural orange juice 150 ml: 2€
Cinema ticket: 6€
Theater ticket: 15-20€