Republic of North Macedonia

Workshop for Conservation of Roman Mosaics

Period: Roman and Late Roman
Code: CDRMP.WRK 19
Session 1: 1 - 15 June
Session 2: 1 - 21 June
Academic credits available: up to 9
Admission fee starting from: 1399 EUR (approx. 1635 USD)

The Project and the Course

General Information

Project type: conservation workshop & field school. The variety of activities and team flexibility make this project suitable for both beginners and advanced (either volunteers or students) in conservation.   

Field school project started: 2012

Artefacts & monuments in the project's focus: Floor mosaics of the ancient city of Stobi, Republic of North Macedonia. 

Periods in the project's focus: Roman, Late Roman/Early Byzantine (2nd century BCE - 6th century CE).  

Venue: Archaeological site of Stobi, Republic of North Macedonia. The Hellenistic, Roman and Late Roman city was a significant urban center in Antiquity and capital of the Roman province Macedonia Secunda in the Late Antiquity. Stobi was included in the 2012 World Monuments Fund Watch list among the monuments with universal significance - Read more here!     

Major workshop activities:    

The workshop will enable participants to gain comprehensive knowledge and hands-on experience in Roman mosaic and art conservation. They will be introduced to the history and technology of Roman and Late Roman mosaics. This course is designed primarily for students in Archaeological Conservation, Archaeology, Anthropology, History, Art History, and other related scientific fields.

The workshops will be based on authentic mosaic fragments found in the ancient city of Stobi. 

BHF partners in this project:  NI Stobi, Republic of North Macedonia and New Bulgarian University, Bulgaria 

Chief conservator: Dr Krassimira Frangova (Assoc. Prof. at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation)

Field School coordinators: Dr Angela Pencheva (Balkan Heritage Foundation & Field School Program Manager) 


  • Two week session: 1 - 15 June, 2019
  • Three week session: 1 - 21 June, 2019     

Application Deadlines: until the places are filled, 1 May 2019   

Minimum length of stay: Two weeks.

Minimum age: 18 (16, if the participant is accompanied by an adult family member).   

Number of field school places available: Maximum 12

Language: English   

Experience required: No 

Special requirements: Good physical condition and command of manual operations. Participation in the project is not recommended for individuals with solar allergies or other special illnesses that might be exacerbated during the intensive outdoor activities. The average summer temperatures in the area are 25-38 C or higher. All participants should bring clothes and toiletries suitable for hot and sunny weather, although the weather in June can sometimes be chilly.    

It is recommended that participants bring their laptops having at least 20 GB free disk space and a mouse. Operation system recommended: Windows XP or newer, Mac OSX or newer.    

All participants are expected to prepare for the workshop by reading at least the BHFS handbook (the BHFS e-handbook will be sent by e-mail to all registered students before the beginning of the project) and other recommended readings.  

Participants will use the tools and equipment available at the site and are not expected to bring any additional equipment.


The Workshop

In 2019, the field school project will again be hosted by the National Institution Stobi, North Macedonia at the Roman city of Stobi (today an archaeological park). It provides an unique opportunity for students and volunteers to gain comprehensive knowledge and hands-on experience in Roman (esp. Late Roman) Mosaic Art and Conservation.

During the workshop participants will be guided through the consequent stages of study, conservation and documentation as well as the history and technology of Roman and Late Roman mosaics.They will work with authentic Late Roman mosaic sections found in the ancient city of Stobi.

The project includes three modules: practical work in documentation and conservation of Roman mosaics; lectures on their history and conservation as well as excursions to the town of Bitola, the archaeological site of Heraclea LyncestisOhrid and Ohrid lake (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Ancient Macedonian capitals in Pella and Vergina (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Greece. Refer to the Course Program and Agenda.

By the end of the workshop the participants will:

  • be able to develop basic/further practical skills (depending on the participant's initial level of qualification) in ancient mosaic conservation and documentation
  • be able to recognize many of the alteration types of ancient mosaics and their causes 
  • learn about the history and techniques of Roman (esp. Late Roman) mosaics
  • deepen their knowledge through a first-hand experience of the Roman History, Arts and Archaeology in the region of ancient Macedonia
  • meet professionals who work in the areas of Archaeological and Art Conservation & Classical Archaeology.


All participants will receive:

  • Project handbook (in PDF version by e-mail and hard copy upon arrival);
  • Balkan Heritage Field School Certificate specifying the fieldwork hours, educational modules, and sites visited;   
  • T-shirt.


New Bulgarian University grants 9 academic credits to students for participation in the project. Transcripts are available upon request for an additional tuition fee. Contact Admissions Office for details.


Archaeological and Historical Context

Why Stobi? The first historic records to mention Stobi are by the Roman historian Titus Livy (ca. 197 BCE). According to Livy, Stobi became an important center for salt trading after the Roman conquests of Macedonia and the establishment of Pax Romana. In 69 CE, Emperor Vespasian granted Stobi the rank of municipium and the right to mint its own coins. Stobi was not only an important salt trading center but also strategically located at the crossroad of the ancient roads that ran along the two rivers Axios and Erigon. The first road connected the North and the South of the Balkans as it does today, while the second to the southwest connected Stobi with Via Egnatia near Heraclea Lyncestis and to the northeast it continued to Serdica.

This commercial and strategic position brought Stobi long-term prosperity, especially in the period between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. Several monumental buildings in the city are dated to this period: the Theater, the first City Wall, Porta Heraclea, Public Building with Arches (most likely the Stobi library), Casa Romana, the Synagogue, as well as the water supply system. In 267 CE the city suffered Goths and Herules raids. At the end of the 3rd century Stobi was devastated by an earthquake, later rebuilt, but following a different urban plan. Most of the ruins visible today belong to buildings dated to this period.

In the 4th century CE, Stobi became an important Christian center and the seat of powerful bishops. In the 5th- 6th centuries, Stobi was the capital city of the Roman province Macedonia Secunda, but suffered from the raids of Huns, Ostrogoths, Avars and Slavs. The constant threat of barbarian raids, as well as certain climatic changes lead to the gradual abandonment of the city in the second half of the 6th century CE. Some records mention a small Slav community that settled and lived there in later centuries. The last historical reference regarding Stobi describes the victory of the Byzantine troops over Stobi’s local militia during the 11th century CE. 

Approximately 1560 square meters of the excavated territory of the ancient city of Stobi are covered with entirely or partly preserved mosaics, dated mostly between the second and sixth century CE. Most of them were discovered in the public or residential Roman and Late Roman buildings at the site: the Episcopal Basilica, the Extramural Basilica, the Theodosian Palace, the Synagogue II, the "Casino", the House of Peristeria and the House of Polycharmos. Variations of geometric, floral and animal motifs are represented in the most popular ancient mosaic techniques: opus tesselatum, opus sectile as well as opus barbaricum and opus vermiculatum.
The first preventive conservation of a part of the mosaics in Stobi started in the 1930s and continued sporadically in the following decades. Today, many of the mosaics require urgent conservation and preservation due to damage caused by the weather and lack of proper and consistent maintenance over the past decades. In 2009, NI Stobi started a long-term program for complete conservation and exhibition of the mosaics at Stobi. Each Balkan Heritage Workshop contributes to this program and facilitates significantly the conservation of at least one of the endangered mosaics!


Thanks to the hardworking conservation team of NI Stobi and all project participants as well as the Balkan Heritage funding in 2012 and 2013, two of the floor mosaics in the Theodosian Palace of Stobi were successfully conserved. In 2014 and 2015, the students participated in the conservation and restoration project of the mosaics from the narthex of the Episcopal basilica which is considered to be the oldest and most important Early Christian monument in the Republic of North Macedonia. A project for conservation of the baptisterium of the Episcopal Basilica funded by The U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Heritage Preservation was successfully finalized in 2018. 

The focus of the course in 2016 and 2017, were the floor mosaics from the late antique palace (so called "Casino") and plus the mosaics from the narthex in the Episcopal basilica. In 2018 the conservation team and the students worked on in situ preserved mosaic from the Theodosian palace. The same mosaic will be in the focus of the workshop in 2019, as well as some previously lifted fragments from the Episcopal basilica. 


The Episcopal Basilica of Stobi has several construction phases dated between the 4th and the late 6th century CE. The two major construction phases of the Episcopal Basilica are clearly visible in the plan, architecture, wall paintings and the mosaic floor decoration of the edifice. During the first phase, the floor of the nave was covered by a colorful mosaic in opus tessalatum with dominant geometric and floral motifs and two central frames containing the initials of Jesus Christ (in Greek) and a medallion with a Christological message to all believers who visit the church. Later, around 360 - 370 CE, the first ecclesiastic edifice was reconstructed and extended to the east by bishop Eusthatius, who is mentioned as the commissioner of the reconstruction in the mosaic in front of the new altar. On the mosaic his name was written over a splendid kantharos symbolizing the Source of Life. In the second half of the 5th century CE on top of the Old Basilica was built a new three - aisled basilica commissioned by Bishop Philip. The floors in the nave, the south aisle and the narthex as well as many of the walls were adorned with mosaics. The magnificent one that covered the floor of the baptistery (the end of the 5th - beginning of the 6th century CE) illustrates the 41st Psalm of David with two alternated presentations of peacocks and deer around a kantharos.


The Program


Two-week workshop session on mosaic conservation will provide a minimum of 80 astronomical hours of practical work, workshops/lab work, lectures/instructions and guided tours as follows:    

 Workshops and practical work 

  • Documentation of conservation treatment   
  • Mosaic documentation: graphic and photo documentation, scaled drawings, digital mapping (ortho photography, detailed photographs, general maps, maps of details)   
  • Preliminary of mosaics ”in situ”: cleaning of the mosaic surface; consolidation, application of protective facing detachment   
  • Treatment of the detached mosaic fragments of removed mosaic pieces: cleaning and consolidation of the back side of the mosaic; transfer on a new support; removal of the protecting facing, cleaning.  


  • Review of Basic Methods and Techniques in Mosaic Conservation.
  • History of Stobi and Macedonia in the Roman and Late Roman period (2nd century BCE - 6th century CE).
  • Introduction to the Floor Mosaics from Stobi: Mosaics from Stobi: Styles and Motives.
  • Introduction to the Conservation Work (Laboratory, Tools, Materials, Chemicals)  
  • Preliminary Initial Report: Description of the Mosaic Technique and Technology; Condition Assessment, Description of the Mosaic Condition; Sampling and samples, Photo Documentation   
  • Mosaics from Macedonia (4th - 6th CE).  
  • History and Archaeology of Bitola and Heraclea Lyncestis
  • History and Archaeology of Ohrid (UNESCO World Heritage Site).    

Guided tours      

The three-week field school session on mosaic conservation will provide a minimum of 120 astronomical hours of fieldwork, workshops/lab work, lectures/instructions and guided tours.The three-week session's educational activities incorporate all two-week session's ones plus the following:    


  • Conservation of Detached Late Roman Mosaic Sections (incl. Fixation, Consolidation, Application to the New Support, Cleaning, Disinfection, Retouch etc.).   
  • History and Archaeology of Pella and Vergina (UNSCO World Heritage Site);      

Guided tour 


  • Lectures will take place at the site's lab.  
  • Workshops will take place at the site.
  • Instructions and training - will take place at the site.

The Agenda


First day

Arrival date: 1 June 2019

Arrival at archaeological site of Stobi by 7.00 pm, check-in and registration. 

8/8.30 - 10.30 pm - Short orientation walk in Gradsko. Traditional welcome dinner. 

Transfers from one of the nearest airports: Skopje (North Macedonia) and Thessaloniki (Greece) can be arranged for an additional fee upon request.

Participants who travel by bus/train will be picked up from the Gradsko bus/railway station. 

Second Day

Morning: Presentation of the Balkan Heritage Field School, NI Stobi and collaborating universities & institutions, the project and the participants. Ice-breakers and orientation.

Afternoon: Lectures. Sightseeing of the archaeological site of Stobi.

Work days

7.50 - 8.30 am - Breakfast

8.30 am - 1.00 pm - Workshops/Lectures with 30-min break*

1.00 - 4.00 pm - Lunch and siesta break

4.00 - 7.30 pm - Workshops/Lectures

8.00 - 9.00 pm - Dinner

Workshops and lectures cover different aspects of ancient mosaic conservation, restoration and documentation methods and practices.

During the evenings, the project team can organize or assist participants in organizing leisure activities such as films, sports and visits to the neighboring towns/villages. 

Excursion Schedule

Saturday (8 June): Guided visit of the Old Town Quarter of Bitola and the archaeological site of Heraclea Lyncestis

Sunday (9 June): Guided visit of Ohrid and the Ohrid Lake (UNESCO World Heritage Site)   

Sunday (16 June): Guided tour of ancient Macedonian capitals Pella and Aigai, modern Vergina (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Greece ONLY FOR THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE THREE-WEEK SESSION

Day off

15 June (Saturday)

For the participants in the three week session.

Departure day

Departure after breakfast.   

Two week session: 15 June 2019

Three week session: 21 June 2019

Transfers to either Skopje (North Macedonia) or Thessaloniki (Greece) airports are available for an additional fee upon request      


Reading Background


Andreae B., Antike Bildmosaiken, Mainz, 2003   

Bruneau Ph., La mosaïque antique. Lectures en Sorbonne, Paris, 1987   

Donderer M., Die Mosaizisten der Antike und ihre wirtschaftliche und soziale Stellung, Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1989     

Downing C. J., Wall Paintings from the Baptistery at Stobi, Macedonia, and Early Depictions of Christ and the Evangelists (Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 52, 1998, 259-280 

Dunbabin K.M.D. , Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World, Cambridge 1999   

Early Christian Wall Paintings from the Episcopal Basilica in Stobi:

Fischer P., Mosaic: History and Technique, New York & Toronto, 1971      

Ling R.J., Ancient Mosaics, London, 1998

L’Orange H.P., Nordhagen P., Mosaics from Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, London, 1966  

Wiseman R., Mano-Zissi Dj., Stobi: A City of Ancient Macedonia. In: Journal of Field Archaeology, 3, 1976, p. 269-302

Travel & Accommodation & Practicalities   


The nearest airports: Skopje, North Macedonia (80 km) and Thessaloniki, Greece (160 km). If participants arrive at these airports, a transfer to Stobi may be arranged by request. Individual or group transfers' price may vary depending on both distance and number of passengers from 30 to 110 EUR.

How to get there? Stobi is located in the center of the Republic of North Macedonia. It can be easily accessed by: 1. travelling by bus or car on the highway E-75 (from Athens, Greece to Belgrade, Serbia and Central Europe across North Macedonia) - the highway exit STOBI is just in front of the site's entrance; 2. catching a bus/train from Skopje (North Macedonia), Thessaloniki (Greece) - the stop is at Gradsko (5 km. away from Stobi), from there participants/visitors can get a taxi to Stobi or request a free pick-up available from 9.00 am to 7.00 pm on the arrival day (please ask for details); 3. from neighboring towns of Negotino (13 km) and Kavadartsi (20 km) participants can get a bus to Gradsko or a taxi directly to Stobi. 

Accommodation & Meals   


Accommodation: in recently renovated air-conditioned cabins at the archaeological site next to the ancient ruins of Stobi, in rooms with two to three beds. Each cabin has 4 bedrooms + living room, 2 bathrooms with showers and WC. Washing machine and Wi-Fi are available for free. There are outdoor and indoor dining and social spaces.

Meals: Three meals per day are covered by the admission fee. They usually take place (except the lunch packages during the excursions) at the site's dining room or outdoors next to it. Requests for vegetarian food are accepted. Specialized diets (vegan, kosher, gluten-free etc.) are difficult to maintain in this location.

Participants must pay on their own for extra meals, beverages, services and products!        

Free Time & Trips 

Films, sport games and visits to the neighboring towns/villages are options for the free time in the evenings. 

Technicalities & Practicalities 


Insurance: The admission fee does not cover health insurance. It is necessary to arrange your own insurance before your trip to Republic of North Macedonia. There are hospitals, clinics and pharmacies in all the larger towns. Foreign tourists must pay for health services, but might receive a refund if their home country has signed the Health Insurance Convention with Macedonia (you should check this information with your Ministry of Health).

Weather: Moderate continental climate dominates in Stobi. Summers there are usually hot (up to 40-45 C; 100–110 F). Rainy and chilly days in this season are rare but not excluded.

What to bring?

  • A pair of working shoes (sneakers, running shoes) and a pair of comfortable shoes for walking/hiking;
  • Clothing suitable for an outdoor working environment: sun-hat and light clothes with long sleeves and legs (protecting from the sun and insects), including a light raincoat (consider weather conditions - hot and sunny, but rain may fall as well);   
  • Wide brim hat.   
  • Small backpack (for your water bottle, snacks, camera, etc.) 
  • Participants are encouraged to bring a laptop having at least 20 GB free disk space, a mouse and an USB flash drive. Operating system recommended: Windows XP or newer; Mac OS X 10.0.0 or newer.
  • Medication - only prescription medicines you may need. It is not necessary to bring non-prescription medicine from your country since you can buy all basic non-prescription drugs in North Macedonia.   
  • A converter to EU type electricity wall-plug if needed.
  • A good attitude for work, fun, study and discoveries    

    Conservation & Documentation tools and materials are available at the site.

The Admission fee


The Admission fee includes: educational and fieldwork activities, full-board accommodation (room + 3 meals per day), tools, materials, project Handbook, issue of Certificate of Attendance, excursions/sightseeing tours/entrance fees and administrative costs.


The price in USD is for orientation. Please check current exchange rates! 

   Early Bird - by January 31, 2019:

Early Bird admission fee for two week session is 1399 EUR/ approx. 1636 USD

Early Bird admission fee for three week session is 1799 EUR/ approx. 2104 USD 


Registration after January 31, 2019:

Regular Admission fee for two week session is 1529 EUR/ approx.1788 USD. 

Regular Admission fee for three week session is 1999 EUR/ approx. 2338 USD. 


Admission Fee Transfer Options:

- Bank transfer
- On-line transfers via the Balkan Heritage virtual POS Terminal VISA, MASTERCARD & MAESTRO cards are accepted.
TransferWise money transfer

For further information contact Admissions Office at [email protected]

Discounts off the regular admission fee:

* 5% DISCOUNT OFF the regular admission fee available for:

  1. Participation in more than one BHFS project in 2019 (discount applies to the second, third, etc. project).
  2. Membership in the Archaeological Institute of America.

* 10% DISCOUNT OFF the regular admission fee available for:

  1. Participation in any BHFS project in the past.

* 12% DISCOUNT OFF the regular admission fee available for:

  1. Group participation (three or more people, who participate together in one BHFS project in 2019 (the discount is valid for each participant).

* 15% DISCOUNT OFF the regular admission fee is available for:

  1. Group Participation (three or more people, who participate in more than one BHFS project in 2019 (the discount is valid for each participant).   
  2. BHFS alumni, who participate in more than one BHFS project in 2019. (discount applies to the second, third, etc. project).
  3. BHFS alumni, who participated successfully in the same project in the past.


Note, 5% of every admission fee for this project directly supports the Balkan Heritage Protection Fund's activities!   

For more information about scholarships, low-cost flights, hotels, etc. please feel free to contact us or look at our recommended links

Academic credits


New Bulgarian University grants 6 ECTS credits to students for attending the two-week session and 9 ECTS credits for attending the three-week session. Transcripts of Records (ToR) are available upon request for an additional tuition fee. For details: Regulations for obtaining Transcripts of Records.



Republic of North Macedonia

Workshop for Conservation of Roman Mosaics

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